精品DEVELOPING-CRITICAL-THINKING-SKILLS-IN-WRITING.ppt(共48页)【在线阅读】

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精品DEVELOPING-CRITICAL-THINKING-SKILLS-IN-WRITING.ppt(共48页)【在线阅读】

【文档描述】 Chapter5 DEVELOPINGCRITICALTHINKINGSKILLSINWRITING DevelopingCriticalThinkingSkills 5 1CriticalThinkingandWriting5 2ArgumentativeWriting5 3EffectiveWaysofDevelopingCriticalThinkingSkills 5 1CriticalThinkingandWriting WhatisCriticalThinkingCriticalThinkinginWritingLogicalReasoningCommonLogicalFallacies 1 WhatisCriticalThinking analyzingcapacitysummarizingcapacitysynthesizingcapacityreasoningcapacityappraisingcapacity 2 CriticalThinkinginWriting AdvancingathesisIssuesinvolvedinadvancingathesis WhatIsaThesis 标题和主题的区分可通过下面的表格阐释 HowtoAdvanceaThesis Threecriticalquestionscanhelptochooseathesis Doesthethesisassertanarguableopinion Doesthethesisrespondtoaconcernorquestionatissue Doesthethesislenditselftoreasonedsupport IssuesInvolvedinAdvancingaThesis 论证就是引用一个或一些已知为真的判断来确定另一个判断的真实性的思维过程 任何论证都是由三个方面组成的 包括论点 论据和论证方式 论点是论证的对象 论点是整个论证推理过程中的中心 论据是论证中确定论点真实性所依据的判断 一篇有说服力的文章应当回答下列三个问提 Whatisthequestionatissue Whatistheauthor spointofview Dotheauthor sreasonselicitreaders belief 3 LogicalReasoning InductiveReasoning 归纳推理 在科学研究中归纳推理应用广泛 归纳推理指的是通过观察具体的例证得出一般性结论的推理过程 DeductiveReasoning 演绎推理 演绎推理与归纳推理形成鲜明对照 演绎推理得出的结论是肯定的 无疑义的 演绎推理的含义是利用普遍适用的规则和前提得出结论 InductiveorDeductiveReasoning Whenitrains thegrassgetswet Itrainedtoday Therefore thegrassiswet Thegrasshasbeenweteverytimeithasrained Therefore ifitrainstomorrow thegrasswillgetwet TwoRulestoFollowinReasoning 在演绎推理过程中 应当注意推理的有效性 deductivevalidity 为了实现推理的合理性和有效性 应当遵循两条原则 所有前提中提到的内容都是真实的 三段论式的推理是合乎理性的 SpecificRulesforDeductiveReasoning 自从亚里士多德以来 逻辑学家提出了众多的衡量演绎推理的准则 下面试举几例说明 中项必须有周延性三段论式中 两个前提不能都是否定的个特称前提不能得出结论 中项必须有周延性大前提 Allzebrasarestriped 小前提 Thisanimalisstriped 结论 Therefore thisanimalisazebra 三段论式中一定要有三个项 terms 即大项 中项 小项 上述例子中 isazebra是大项 striped是中项 animal是小项 其中中项起到连接大前提和小前提的作用 这个三段论式的结论是错误的 因为中项没有周延性 distributed 换句话说 斑马 zebra 只是身上有条纹的动物中的一个种类 这个三段论式中的 有条纹的 striped 判断词并没有涵盖所有身上有条纹的动物 因此 这是一个无效的推理 上述例子说明 演绎推理三段论式中的中项必须具有周延性 三段论式中 两个前提不能都是否定的 大前提 NomemberoftheGreenPartyvotedforthetaxcut 小前提 Mr Jacobsdidnotvoteforthetaxcut 结论 Mr JacobsisamemberoftheGreenParty 上述三段论式中的小项Mr Jacobs没有对削减税收投赞成票 但是这并不说明Mr Jacobs属于GreenParty 在这个三段论式中 不能两个前提都具有否定的含义 因此 结论是错误的 两个特称前提不能得出结论 大前提 JanetBakerisasoprano 小前提 JanetBakerisamusician 结论 如果两个前提都是特称肯定命题 则这两个前提中没有一个项是周延的 这样 不论哪一个项做中项 都是不周延的 因此不能得出结论 总之 归纳推理中所选用的样本必须是真实的 同时结论的可靠性应该随着样本量的增大而增强 演绎推理的前提应具有真实性 推理过程应该是有效的 同时不违反逻辑思维的规则 HastyGeneralization 轻率的概括 证据不充分时所做的归纳 e g DeathsfromdrugoverdosesinMetropolishavedoubledinthepastthreeyears Therefore moreAmericansthaneveraredyingfromdrugabuse FalseAnalogy 虚假的类比 因为两种事物之间有某些相似之处 就得出结论说 这两种事物之间在其他方面也相似 e g Xistoooldtobetheprincipalbecauseanolddogcannotlearnnewtricks Equivocation 模棱两可 指在论述中改变了概念的含义 e g Itisnotinthepublicinterestforthepublictoloseinterestinpolitics 4 CommonLogicalFallacies Either or Reasoning 两者取一 指复杂的问题让人感觉似乎只有两个解决方案供选择 即或者选A或者选B 而实际的选择不只限于A或B e g Eithergotouniversityorforgetaboutgettingajob BeggingtheQuestion 循环论证 争论时提出一个观点 但是提出的论据是以提出的观点为基础 e g Wrestlingisadangeroussportbecauseitisunsafe RedHerring 转移注意力 在争论中提出一个不相关的问题以引开听众的注意力 e g Whyworryaboutpandasbecomingextinctwhenweshouldbeconcernedabouttheplightofthehomeless Self Contradiction 自相矛盾 这种逻辑错误是指两种情况不能同时都是真实的 e g Onlywhennuclearweaponshavefinallydestroyeduswillwebeconvincedoftheneedtocontrolthem PostHoc FalseCause 错误的因果关系 因为A发生在B之后 就认为B是A发生的原因 e g SinceGovernorLeetookoffice unemploymentforminoritiesinthestatehasdecreasedby7percent GovernorLeeshouldbeapplaudedforreducingunemploymentamongminorities ArgumenttothePeople 利用人的偏见 这种错误利用了人们的偏见 e g Inacourtoflaw thejuryvotebymajority therefore theywillalwaysmakethecorrectdecision ArgumenttothePerson AdHominem 用情感代替理智 把听众或读者的注意力从论点本身转移开 去关注提出论点的人的外貌 习惯或性格 e g Wecouldtakeherpositioninfavorofjailingchildabusersseriouslyifshewerenotsonastytothechildrenwholivenextdoortoher ArgumenttoIgnorance 诉诸无知 如果一个观点不能被证明是错误的 那么它就是正确的 这种错误很有鼓动性 因为它利用了人们的迷信心理或者无知 e g Sincenoonehasproventhatdepressiondoesnotcausecancer wecanassumethatitdoes Bandwagon 人云亦云 有这种思维的人认为 多数人都在说或做的事情就是正确的 e g Everyoneknowsthateatingchocolatemakeschildrenactive Overgeneralization 过度概括 在证据尚不充分的基础上做出了具有高度概括性的结论 这种错误的陈述经常与all always never等表示绝对含义的词语连用 e g Alldemocratsareliberals NonSequitur 无前提的推理 这种逻辑错误指的是结论与前提不相关 e g Icantellsheisanatheist becauseshenevergoestochurch GuiltbyAssociation 语义株连 逻辑推理的三段论式中起媒介作用的中项或联接项没有得到周延 e g Dogshavefourlegs Lambshavefourlegs Therefore dogsarelambs 5 2ArgumentativeWriting Compositiontypesinwriting 1 Comparative ArgumentEssay 2 Pro and ConEssay 3 Inductive and DeductiveEssay 4 Cause and EffectEssay 1 Comparative ArgumentEssay 比较型议论文主要用于比较一个事物的不同方面 或几种相似的事物的不同之处 多有涉及某一事物的正反 利弊 优劣等两方面的问题 如advantagesanddisadvantagesbenefitsandproblemspositiveandnegativeaspectssimilaritiesanddifferencessuccessandfailure TheAdvantagesandDisadvantagesofStudyingAbroad StudyingoverseashasbeenacceptedasadesirableoptionformanyChinesefamilieslately Obviously itpromisesagreatrangeofrewards Inthefirstplace it sachancetohaveaccesstoadvancedscienceandtechnologyaswellasdesirableworkingconditions whichisbarelyavailableathome Inaddition exposedtoentirelynewideasandcustoms onecanpolishhisforeignlanguageandhasawonderfulexperience However studyingabroadmightaswellbecomethesourceofendlesshardships Aboveall learningaforeignlanguageisfarfromaneasythingatthebeginningforalmosteveryone Besides acompletelynewenvironmentconstitutesabarriertooverseasstudents whichisespeciallytruetotheyoung Anadditionaldifficultyliesinthefinancialpressureforfamiliesleftbehind Itcanbeverycostlytostudyabroad Ithasalwaysbeenaharshdecisiontomake anditissensibletotakeintoconsiderationalltherelevantfactors whichincludefinancialconditions accessibilityofhelpincasesofemergencyandthestudents adaptabilitytonewsurroundings Personally Iredeemthatgoingabroadpromisesmorechances SampleWriting ThePositiveandNegativeAspectsofOnlineShopping Oneofthecontroversialissuestodayisonlineshopping Accordingtoarecentsurvey alargeproportionofthepublicusedtoshoponlineandanevengreaterproportionisplanningtogiveitatry Shoppingonlineisnotonlyafashion butitsadvantageshavealsobeenwellrecognized Convenienceandlowpricescanalwaystopotherstobethebestreasonsforsomeconsumerstochooseinternettodotheirshopping Noonecandenythemanybenefitsthatithasbroughtabout However everythingalwayshasprosandcons andit sthesamecasewithonlineshopping Deceptionandpoorqualityareoftenlistedasthemosttroublesomeproblemswiththiswayofpurchasing Andwhat smoreimportantisthataslongaswegoonshoppinginavirtualworld theseproblemsseemtobeunavoidable Inordertomakethebestoutoftheonlineshoppingaswellasavoidpotentialrisks Isuggestthatweshouldnotshopthiswayunlesswearetoooccupiedtodoitinthemallinperson ortheshopsonlineareownedbyourfriendsoracquaintances Onlyinthiswaycanweenjoyonlineshoppingtothefull SampleWriting GoingonaSelf touroraPackageTour Whenfacedwithchoicesforapleasantvacation someneverhesitatetochooseaself plannedtouroverapackageone Inthefirstplace thiswayoftouringpromisesfreedomandflexibilitytocertaindegree sincetheycanpickuptheirfavoritesitesanddecideonthetimespentateachplace letalonewhattohaveformeals whichoftenmakesagreatpartofthefunintraveling However that snotthecasewitheveryperson becausesomeotherswilldefinitelychooseapackagetourtospendtheirtimeinamoreefficientandeasyway Asisobviouslyrevealedbythewordpackage suchatourwillsavethetouristshugeamountofenergybyprovidingplanneditinerary arrangingeverydetailbeforegatheringthetravel loverstogether Besides noonecandenythepossibilityforonetodevelopgreatrelationshipontheroad Viewingthecontradictoryopinions bothapproacheshavefavorableadvantagesforpotentialtourists SoIdon tthinkitwouldmakeanysensetorushintoachoicebeforetakingintoaccounttherelevantsituations includingfund time thetargetdestinationoreventhepersonalphysicalconditions 辩论型议论文主要是就目前社会热点话题或有争议性的观点和问题发表议论 要求写作者审视正反两方面的论据 通过对同一问题的两种不同观点进行比较或对比 从不同角度进行分析和评价 支持或驳斥 然后提出自己的看法并加以论证说明 最后得出结论 通常辩论型议论文有两种类型 AorB类型Myviewon类型 2 Pro and ConEssay Ican tstandthepressureandcompetition explainedonefriendofminewhenaskedwhyhedecidedtoquithishighly paidbutdemandingpositioninhiscompanyrecently Myfriendmayhavehisownreasons butIdon tthinkhisdecisioniswiseinreality Itistruethatmyfriend scaseisnotunique Inthelastfewyearsquiteanumberofmenandwomenhavechosentodosomethinglesscompetitiveatthecostofacomfortable easylifeahighly paidjobcanobtain Theyareafraidthatthestressesandstrainsofworkwillrobthemofjoyandhappinessanddothemharmbothphysicallyandmentally Infact however stressisn tthebadthingitisoftensupposedtobe Unlessitgetsoutofcontrol acertainamountofstressisvitaltoprovidemotivationandchallenge andtogivepurposeandsignificancetoanotherwisemeaningless idlelife Peopleunderstresstendtoexpresstheirfullrangeofpotentialandtoactualizetheirownpersonalworth theveryaimofahumanlife Stressisanaturalpartofeverydaylifeandthereisnowaytoavoidit Whatwecandoistodevelopouradaptiveabilitiestodealwithitratherthantoescapefromit IsStressaBadThing WhyWeWorkWhydowework Theanswersdifferfromonepersontoanotherbecausetheyadoptdifferentattitudestowardswork Somepeoplelivetowork Theydevotethemselvestotheirwork Theaimforwhichtheyworkistorealizethevalueoflife topromotethedevelopmentofsocietyandtomakemorepeoplelivehappily Theymakegreatcontributiontosocietyandatthesametimetheyalsofindpleasurefromtheirwork Onthecontrary otherpeopleworktolive Theyregardworkasawayofmakingaliving Thepurposeforwhichtheyworkistokilltimeortomakeenoughmoneytosupportthemselvesandtheirfamilies Theyoftenconsiderworkaswhattheyhavetodo Sotheycan tpickuppleasureandenjoymentfromtheirwork Suchpeople oncetheycanaffordtosupportthemselvesandtheirfamilies perhapsquittheirwork Inmyopinion weshouldn tgototheextremes Sincewearemembersofsociety weshoulddowhatwecantobetteritsothatwecanliveinmorecomfortableandmoreconvenientsurroundings Goodlifeisanassuranceofsmoothwork Onlywhenwerealizethiscanwelivehappilyandworkwell Althoughhonestisbelievedtobeavirtue therearestilldishonestpeopleinoursociety Forexample somebusinessmensellfakecommoditiestotheirconsumers somestudentscheatintheexams Dishonestpeopleareshort sighted Thosewhosellfakeproductsmaymakemoneyatfirst butconsumerswon tbuytheirproductsanymore Asaresult theywouldlosetheirfortuneorevenbesenttoprison Bycontrast honestpeoplewouldgainalot Thosewhoalwaystellthetruthorkeeptheirpromisenotonlyletotherstrustthembutgainrespectfromotherpeopleaswell Suchpersonsaresuretohavealotofgoodfriends Becausetheyaretrustworthyandrespectable everyoneiseagertomakefriendswiththem Besides itiseasierforapersonwithagoodrecordtogetagoodjob Generallyspeaking everyemployerwantshisemployeestobehonest Sowecansaythatanyonewhoishonestwillgetrewardsforgooddeeds Inaword honestwinstrust respectandhonor Soitisimportantthatweshouldbehonest ItPaystoBeHonest PetRaising Nowadays withtheimprovementofthepeople slivingstandard somepeopleformahabitofraisingsmallordomesticanimalsaspets Someraisesmalldogsorcatsastheirpetswhileothersraisevariousbirdsorfishesastheirpets Therearestillevensomepeopleraisingsnakesandotherunusualanimalsastheirpets Doesanyonehavethesameopinionofraisinganimalsaspets No somepeopleobjecttotheideaofraisinganimalsaspets Tothem animalshavetheirownrighttoliveanaturallifelikehumanbeings Ontheotherhand thewaypeopleraiseanimalsaspetshaveanegativeinfluenceonthesurroundingssuchasdogs barkingatmidnight dogs chasingpeopleonthestreetandsoon What smore someanimalswilltransmitsomediseases Inmyopinion Idonotliketheideatoraiseanimalsatpets Animalshavetheirownrighttoleadalifeastheylike Weshouldnotdeprivethemoftheirnaturalright Inthisway wewillliveinapeacefulworldinharmonywiththeotherlivingcreatures 3 InductiveandDeductiveEssay 阐述说明型议论文要求写作者就某一问题或现象正面阐述自己的观点 并分析说明其理由 通常要用例证对其重要性 必要性 利弊关系或正误关系等进行论证说明 有时还需要提出解决问题的办法或建议 这样的写作充分展现了思辨的分析技能与推理技能 阐述说明型议论文有两种类型 HoworWhat类型SuggestionorMeasure类型 Achievingcontentment Contentmentisnaturalwealth luxuryisartificialpoverty andthisiswhatSocrateshastoldus Formanyofus ithasbeeningrainedintoourlivesthattheproperwaytodiffusediscontentistopurchasetheoutwarditemthatisseeminglycausingthediscontentment However wewerefrustratedwithclutter Wediscoveredthetimethatwaswastedmanagingourpossessionsanddeterminedthatwevalueotherthingsfarmorethanphysicalbelongings Itisoursenseofcontentment Notonlydoescontentmentprovidetheopportunityforminimalism italsoreducesyourstresslevel improvesyouroutlook relaxesyourbody andmakesyourlifeenjoyable Thereisanunmistakablefreedomthatfollowscontentment afreedomtobewhoyouare enjoywhoyouare andlivethelifeyouweredestinedtolive Thereisawaythatcanhelpusfurtherdevelopcontentmentinourlives takecontrolofyourattitude becomegratefulandstopcomparingyourselftoothers Thepracticewillgiveyouafinerappreciationforwhatyouown whoyouare andwhatyouhavetooffer Takeprideinyourpersonhoodandtheprogressthatyouhavemade butneverbecomesocontentthatyoucannotfindroomforimprovement HowtoSucceedinaJobInterview Nowadays therearemanybookstellingpeoplehowtobehaveinajobinterview Peoplelookingforajobusuallyattachgreatimportancetojobinterviews Anddoingwellinajobinterviewmeansagoodchanceofbeingemployed Toleaveadeepimpressionontheinterviewer thefirstthingyouhavetodoisdressingyourselfproperlysothatyoumaylookmatureandconfident Payattentiontothewayyoutalkandbehave forsuchlittlethingsareoftenignored Whatismore youshouldprepareabriefself introductionincludingyourworkingexperiencesandspecialabilities Ifyoufollowtheadvice youwillmostprobablysucceedinajobinterviewandinmostcases youwillgetthejobyouaredreamingof IDregistrationPolicyforMobilePhoneUsers PeoplewerenotrequiredtoshowandhavetheiridentitiesregisteredwhentheyboughtaSIMcardbefore ExceptsomeSIMcardsdesignatedforparticularpeople youcouldgetalmostwhatyouwish一nomatterwhatkindofSIMcardandhowmanycardsyouwant Allseemedsosimpleandconvenient Obviously theeasyaccesstoSIMcardshasitsdrawbacks Themostannoyingoneistherampantspreadofspammessages telephoneharassmentandfraud Thereason amobilephonenumberthatgivesnousefulinformationmakesitdifficulttochasetheanonymouscallerorsender Besides manyuserstendtodiscardcardsatrandomandthatcauseswasteofresources WhenpeopleareaskedfortheirIDinthepurchaseofSIMcards however theproblemsmentionedabovewillbesolvedeasily SinceSIMcardscanbeusedtoidentifyusers peoplewillfeeltrappedwhentheyintendtosendspammessagesorcommittelephonefrauds AndthefactthattheirSIMcardscontainconfidentialinformationconcerningtheirpersonalinterestsmakespeoplethinktwicebeforethrowingthemaway MyFavoritePastime IusuallyspendmyleisuretimeonvariousthingssuchaswatchingTV reading swimmingandplayingtabletennis Butifyouaskmewhatmyfavoritepastimeis Iwoulddefinitelysaythatitisplayingcomputergames IlikecomputergamesandsurfingontheInternet Manypeoplebelieveplayingcomputergamesisharmfultoone shealth especiallytotheeyes ButIdon tquiteagree Ithinkplayingcomputergamesbenefitsme First asawayofrelaxation italsogivesmeasenseofaccomplishment Secondly IgainalotofknowledgeIcannotfindintextbooks Forinstance whenIplayedCivilizationII Ibegantorealizetheimportanceofscience becauseitwasimpossibletodefeattheenemyinthegameifyoudidn tdevelopscience Finallyandmostimportantly IhavetouseanEnglish ChinesedictionaryfromtimetotimebecausemostofthegamesareinEnglish SothemoregamesIplay thegreaterprogressImakeinEnglish Thegamesareentertainingandinstructive IalsolikesurfingontheInternet Thereisahugeamountofinformationthere Ithasbecomemoreandmorepopularandimportant ItissaidthatthosewhocontroltheInternetwillconquertheworldinthefuture ThatisperhapsanillusionbutIwanttobeamasterofthefuture Inaword Ilikeplayingwithmycomputerverymuch Itappealstomycuriosityandmydesiretoescapefromthelimitedworldofmyroom 4 CauseandEffectEssay 因果分析型议论文一般用于解释和分析公众所关心的某一社会现象或社会问题 要求写作者用因果推理方法从主观或客观上对其成因加以解释说明 或从多视角对其可能产生的后果和影响进行分析和论证 并提出自己的看法或建议 因果分析型议论文多数为Why类型 ThePressureofLivinginModernCities Couldcitylivingbemakingyoucrazy Anewreportsaysthatweaksocialtiesmaybetoblameforthehigherincidenceofmentaldisordersincities It snotthehustleandbustleoflivinginthe concretejungle surroundedbypeoplethat smakescitydwellersmentallyunstableeither Infact it stheopposite Citiespackedwithpeoplecanactuallymakepeoplefeeldisconnected anonymousandsociallyisolated Thisistheironyofbeingsurroundedbymillionsofpeople yetfeelinglikeahermit Itseemstruethateveryindividual schoolorareacharacteristicshadaspecificlinktopsychosis Livinginacitywasassociatedwitha41percenthigherchanceofpsychosiscomparedtoruralliving andthelifetimeriskoflivinginacityandgettingthediseasemightbeabout15percentmorethanthoseinruralareas Outofallthevariablesexamined aweaksocialconnectionwasthemostsignificant Inviteafewfriendsandgetoutofthecityforawalkinnature Otherstudieshaveshowngettingoutdoorsforsome greenexercise mayhelpcurbdepressiontoo Otherresearchhasshownthatsocialnetworksprovidesupporttopromotementalhealthandbufferstress Infact recentresearchshowedhappypeopletalkmore Somethingtothinkaboutasyouavoideyecontactintheurbanjungle WeNeedHumor Asuspiciouscustomermurmured Iwonderifthismilkisfresh Thequick wittedwaiteranswered Fresh ThreehoursagoitwasGRASS See Ahumorousresponsemaysolveyourproblem Someoneaskedayoungartist Didyousellanyofyourpaintingsattheartshow No butIamencouraged hereplied Somebodystoleone Andyearslaterhebecameworldknown Humormaysustainusinhardtimesandbringhappinessineverydaylife Oncemyneighbortoldmethatheshavesfiftytimesaday Washecrazy Ofcoursenot heisabarber So mydearfriends remember weneedhumorandtrytobehumorousinyourlife Nexttime whenyouareasked HowcanIstopwaterfromcomingintomyhouse Say Don tpaythewaterbill Whydopeoplelovetodriveacar Peoplegenerallyprefertodrivetheircarssimplybecausetheyprefercontrol Theycan tcontrolthebustoddlinginabittoolateorthespeedofthetrain Peoplehavetheillusiontheyareincontrolwhendrivingtheirowncars It sonlyanillusion Accidentsareevidenceoftheillusionofcontrol norcanwecontroltheflowoftrafficnomatterhowhardwewillourselvestohavesuchafantasticpower andofcourse wecan tcontrolthepoliceofficer sactionwhenhedecidestopullusoverforwhatweconsideredaterriblyminordrivinginfraction Thefinancialbenefitsarequiteobviouswhenconsideringpublictransportation Ofcourse peoplearesecretlyinlovewiththeircars eventhebeatupoldbeautiesthatarequietlyworkingtheirwaytothegravedemandacertainloyalaffectionfromusthesamewaywehaveappreciatedtheirloyalserviceevenwhenitseemeditwaspainfultogive Peoplearesecretlyinlovewiththeirillusionofcontrol 这个段落很幽默又优美 介绍人们对汽车的喜爱合情合理 但是从根本上讲真相却是 幻觉 PleaseBePunctual Withtheadventoftheeraofknowledgeeconomy timeistreasuredbyanincreasingnumberofpeople However manyyoungpeopleattachlittleimportancetopunctuality which inmyopinion willgiverisetomanyproblems First youmayimpressotherpeopleasbeingunreliableanddishonest Whenyouarelateforajobinterview thebossmayrefusetogiveyouthechancesincepeopletendtoassumethatifyoucannotfulfillyourpromise youhavenosenseofresponsibilityandcandonothingwell Second othersmaythinkthatyoushownorespecttothem Ifyouarelateforanappointment thepersonyoukeepwaitingmaythinkthattheappointmentisofnoimportancetoyouandyouareapersonwhoisnotconsiderateofothers time Therefore universitystudentsshouldlearnthatpunctualityisagoodhabit Beingpunctual youareshowingrespecttoothersand inreturn youwillwinothers respectandtrust 5 3EffectiveWaysofDevelopingCriticalThinkingSkills 实践性是语言的特点之一 写作是运用语言表达思想 同时也是进行思辨的实践活动 它是一个发现的过程 解决问题的过程 也是一个创造的过程 祁寿华 2001 1 DevelopingWritingandCriticalThinkingSkillsthroughReading 2 DevelopingCriticalThinkingSkillsthroughWriting 培养思辨能力的途径 freewriting 自由写作 brainstorming 激发思维 branching 思维分支联想 Thecontinuationtask 读后续写 FreeWriting Freewritingissimplythepracticeofwritingwhatevercomesintoyourheadwithoutstoppingtojudgetheoutput Tobegin recordwhateverisgoingthroughyourmindatthemoment withoutworryingaboutgrammar spelling organizationorevenmakingbasicsense eg Myfavoritebook MyFavoriteBook Myfavoritebook Idon tknowwheretostart Ireadsomanybooksthatareinterestingthatit shardtochoosejustone IguessIcouldstartbytalkingaboutthekindsofbooksIreallylike Ilikebiographiesandautobiographiesthebest Ireallyenjoyreadingaboutanotherperson slife OneofmyfavoritebooksiscalledRootsbyAlexHaley HowtheauthorwasabletotracehisfamilyhistoryallthewaybacktoAfricawasamazing AnotherbookIreallyenjoyedwasCarlSandburg sbiogr
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